1613, the English trading company got the permission from Moghul
emperor Jahangir to establish a factory at Surat. In 1668, Bombay was
transferred to East India company from Portuguese. The head of this
area is called as president and thus term Bombay presidency came in to
existence. In 1716 A D Moghul Emperor Forrucksiar gave permission to East India
Company to mint Moghul type coins. Actual minting of coins
started in 1725 AD.
In 1611 A D East India Company established their first factory at
Mussilipattanam in south India. In 1639 A D. E I C obtained permission to establish a
factory at Chinnapattanam or Fort St. George from Raja of Chandrageri.
This region come to be known as Madras Presidency. English company got the
permission to mint coins in 1742 AD in Arcot. But the actual minting of the
coins started in 1758 AD.
In 1633, a factory was established at Hariharpur, later on Mahanandi ,Patna
and Balasore and also in 1651 AD at Hoogli. In 1698 AD East India Company
acquired right to landed property. A permanent fort was built
at Calcutta in 1716 AD and was named as Fort Williams. At the same time it
became independent Bengal Presidency. The East India company got the
permission from the Nawab of Bengal to mint their coins at Calcutta.
On the last day of 1600AD the company of the Merchants of London trading into East
Indies, got the royal charter from Queen Elizabeth to monopoly for trade for 15 years.
In 1608 AD the English company made its first attempt to establish a factory in India. But in 1618 East India Company got permission to establish a permanent factory at Surat and gradually in later years, it established factories at different parts of India.
These East India Company traders gradually got involved in local politics and ultimately succeeded in becoming the rulers of India.
Thus whole of India was under their control by 1834 AD.
In 1857 AD the Indian People revolted against East India Company’s rule. It resulted in transfer of power from East India Company to British Monarchy.
This rule resulted in the end of East India Company in India.
The struggle for Independence continued by people of India till they succeeded in 1947 AD, when India got independence from British rule.
COINAGE DURING EAST INDIA COMPANY RULE
1) In the very early stages the EIC imported special coins from England for the use in their factory and trades with other European Companies.
2) Later, EIC got royal permission to mint their coins locally with English inscription for the local use of these coins with the people near by factories East India Company.
3) For the company’s trade, far away from their factories they got the coins minted by Moghul
Emperors. These coins were in Moghul style with Persian inscriptions. They were minted at
Moghul mints from the bullion supplied by East India Company.
4) From 1716 AD to 1835 AD as the EIC became politically strong, they minted their own coins in EIC mints, but in
Moghul style. Those EIC coins were almost similar to Moghul coins. The borderline to separate EIC coins or distinguish them from
Moghul coins is blurred and hence difficult.
5 )From 1835 AD uniform coinage in European style, with the effigy of British monarch, replacing the
Moghul emperor’s name were issued
6)From 1862 to 1947 AD coins were continued to issued with effigy of succeeding British
Monarchs, till India got independence in 1947 AD
Uniform coinage of East-India
The year 1835 represents the commencement of uniform coinage. It is an
epic-making event in the history of British India coins. The principal person responsible for the uniform coinage was James Princeps. At that time Lord William Bentinck was Governor
General of India.
Before 1835 East India Company coins in all three presidencies Madras, Bombay and Bengal presidencies used to mint coins with name of living or dead Moghul emperor. These coins were also different
in weight ,diameter, purity and denominations.They also had different names. The monetary system was confusing and chaotic. For example more than 60 different types of rupee coins existed. In addition to many types
were found in other denominations.
The introduction of uniform coinage for whole India with regards to weight and standard proved to be immense success
for the basis of classification.
The classification of uniform coinage of East India Company during the period 1835 to 1858 AD is based upon the
1) On the obverse, the effigy of King William or Queen Victoria with continuous legend and divided legend.
2) Metals used: gold, silver and copper.
3) Different denominations: e.g., mohur rupee and annas.
4) Presence or absence of privy marks or initials on truncation of the neck.
5) Different dates: e.g. 1835 to1858 AD.
6) On the reverse, number of Berries on left and right wreath.
7) Different diameters in same denomination, depending upon mints of issue.
8) Presences or absence of a dot after the date or after initials.
9) Presences or absence of serif on numbers and on letters.
10) Variations in size of the letters and numerals on reverse.
11) Presence of small or large diamonds in Persian script.
12) In one quarter anna in addition to variation in number of Berries, flat or slanting top of I in 1835 and “y” of company is “above or opposite or below “ to a Berry.
King William IV
Date of birth
21st August 1765.
Date of death June 1837.
He was the King of United Kingdom from June 1830 till his death in 1837.
He was the 3rd son of King Georg III . He was responsible for many reforms in U
K. his two daughters did not survive him. Hence King William IV was succeeded by
his niece Queen Victoria.
COINS OF KING WILLIAMS IN BRITISH INDIA
The East India Company during his monarchy issued the coins with his effigy in all three presidencies: Bombay presidency, Madras presidency and Bengal presidency. Till that time all presidencies had
gold Mohur, silver rupee and its fractions of different weight, finesse and also different size and even different local names.
The currency reform in 1835 during his period rupee and its fractions were
standardized to one type with a fixed year 1835. In epic making reform in British India Coinage.
All this coins carried his effigy were in all three metals they are Gold, Silver and copper and minted in all three mints that is Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
Victoria Queen (1819 - 1901)
Victoria was the longest reigning British monarch and the figurehead of a vast
born at Kensington palace in London on 24 May 1819, the only child of
Edward (fourth son of George III), Duke of Kent, and Victoria Maria Louisa of
Saxe-Coburg. She succeeded her uncle, William IV, in 1837, at the age of 18, and
her reign dominated the rest of the century. In 1840 she married her first
cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg Gotha. For the next 20 years they lived in
close harmony and had a family of nine children, many of whom eventually married
into the European monarchy.
Indian Mutiny in 1857, the government of India was transferred from the East
India Company to the Crown and in 1877, Victoria became Empress of India. Her
empire also included Canada, Australia, India, New Zealand, and large parts of
coins issued after 1840 bore the portrait of Queen
Victoria. The first coinage under the crown was issued in 1862 and in 1877
Queen Victoria assumed the title the Empress of India.
more information on Queen Victoria see the link below & we thank them for the
EDWARD VII (r. 1901-10)
VII, born November 9, 1841, was the eldest son of Queen Victoria. He took the
family name of his father, Prince Consort Albert, hence the change in lineage,
although he was still Hanoverian on his mother's side. He married Princess
Alexandra of Denmark in 1863, who bore him three sons and three daughters, five
of whom survived to adulthood.
January 1901, Victoria died and Edward succeeded to the throne as Edward VII. He
was crowned in August 1902. Before his accession to the throne, Edward held the
title of Prince of Wales, and has the distinction of having been heir apparent
to the throne longer than anyone in English or British history, a record being
quickly approached by Prince Charles, the current heir apparent. He threw
himself into his new role with energy and his reign restored sparkle to a
monarchy that been rather gloomy since his father's death 40 years earlier. He
was known as the 'Uncle of Europe' for his foreign policy negotiations.
were issued from 1901 to 1910 under his tenure. The special feature of these
coins is that all (except 1 anna coins 1906-1910) of them depict king Edward
without a crown. This is said to be because of the fact that the original dies
for the coins were prepared before king Edwards’s coronation, which happened
only in August 1902.
died on May 6, 1910, after a series of heart attacks. He was succeeded by his
son who became George V.
Frederic Ernest – Abert) born on 3rd June 1865 Died on 30th Jan 1936. He was
the emperor of INDIA from May 1910 to 1936. He visited INDIA and was crowned in INDIA. He was enthusiastic Philatelist.
India coins during his monarchy:
1. Coins were issued dated 1911 to 1936. during his rule with
2. About 96,000 silver coins was melted down at Calcutta mint, to prepare
two silver thrones for his the use of KG V and his wife during Durbar.
3. All these coins were in bronze and silver except in 1918 a gold coin
and in 1918 – 1921 Nickel bronze coins were issued because
during this period silver prices went up due to 1st world was.
4. All these coins on the obverse has a crowned effigy of the king and on
reverse there were four flowers, 3 of them were emblem of UK and 4th
lotus flower the emblem of INDIA.
5. Silver coins of 1911 AD the 1st year of issue, due to engravers
mistake on obverse, the trunk of an elephant was short. It looked like
‘Pig’. Most coins were withdrawn, the mistake was corrected in the coins form
1912 AD onwards.
6. All the coins of KG V were minted in two mints is Calcutta and Bombay.
Frederic Arthur George) born in December 1895 AD and died on February 1952
AD. He was the second son of KG
V. His elder brother Edward VIII, ascended the throne, after the death of his
father KG V. But after few months, he abdicated the throne, to marry an American
lady. No coins were issued in India during his short period of rule, except in a
native state of INDIA. As a result, his younger brother KG VI ascended
throne of UK.
British India coins during king George VI.
of coins with king George VI effigy commenced from 1938 AD and continued up
to 1947 AD.
to out break of 2nd work was during his rule, cost of all metals used in
coins such as gold, silver and copper increased very much. Hence no
gold coins were issued. Even the silver content of the coins were reduced to
50% and further reduced to zero in 1947. Only Nickel was used, instead of
silver similarly to save the copper, coins were issued with a hole (washer
minting of bronze coins of 1/12 anna and 1/2 pice was
stopped. Metallic cover was used from spent bullets and shells of 2nd
world war to mint some coins like 1/2 Anna, 1 Anna and 2 Annas.
of higher denominations were minted with security edge for the 1st time.
a gap of 65 years ˝ Anna denomination coin was re issued.
his period coins from 3rd mint Lahore was issued along with Calcutta and
Bombay mints, due to fear of German invasion to Calcutta during 2nd world
1947 minting of coins with KG VI effigy was stopped, as India got its
independence and thus the British INDIA coins came to an end.